L. Li, R.R. Negenborn, and B. De Schutter, "Distributed model predictive control for cooperative synchromodal freight transport," Transportation Research Part E: Logistics and Transportation Review, vol. 105, pp. 240-260, Sept. 2017.
This paper investigates cooperative synchromodal freight transport planning among multiple intermodal freight transport operators in different and interconnected service networks. The cooperative planning is formulated as a cooperative model predictive container flow control problem, and solved with three Distributed Model Predictive Flow Control (DMPFC) approaches: the parallel and serial Augmented Lagrangian Relaxation (ALR) based DMPFC approaches, and the Alternating Direction Method of Multipliers (ADMM) based DMPFC approach. The simulation results show that the serial ALR-based DMPFC approach requires the least iterations and information exchanges while the ADMM-based DMPFC approach takes the least amount of actual computation time.