M. Burger and B. De Schutter, "Effects of water flow on energy consumption and travel times of micro-ferries for energy-efficient transport over water," in Transport of Water versus Transport over Water - Exploring the Dynamic Interplay Between Transport and Water (C. Ocampo-Martinez and R. Negenborn, eds.), Cham, Switzerland: Springer, pp. 235-258, 2015.
Controlling the transport of water by adjusting water flows in rivers and canals, inevitably will have an effect on the transport over water by vessels as well. We will discuss the effect of flowing water on scheduling micro-ferries (small autonomous water-taxis) using the least amount of energy, while aiming at satisfying customer demands with respect to pick-up times. This trade-off will be made by optimizing the assignment of micro-ferries to customers in a specific order, and by searching for the best travel speeds.
The interplay between controlling transport of water and scheduling transport over water will become clear by the explicit relation between the speed of the water (influenced by water management) on travel times and energy consumption, derived in this chapter. It is shown that on average the travel times (and thereby the energy consumption) will increase with increasing magnitudes of the current. Hence, decisions made on water management have a direct effect on the performance of the transport system, and the interests of both parties should be taken into account to obtain a well-functioning water transport system.