R.R. Negenborn, A.G. Beccuti, T. Demiray, S. Leirens, G. Damm, B. De Schutter, and M. Morari, "Supervisory hybrid model predictive control for voltage stability of power networks," Proceedings of the 2007 American Control Conference, New York, New York, pp. 5444-5449, July 2007.
Emergency voltage control problems in electric power networks have stimulated the interest for the implementation of online optimal control techniques. Briefly stated, voltage instability stems from the attempt of load dynamics to restore power consumption beyond the capability of the transmission and generation system. Typically, this situation occurs after the outage of one or more components in the network, such that the system cannot satisfy the load demand with the given inputs at a physically sustainable voltage profile. For a particular network, a supervisory control strategy based on model predictive control is proposed, which provides at discrete time steps inputs and set-points to lower-layer primary controllers based on the predicted behavior of a model featuring hybrid dynamics of the loads and the generation system.