T. van den Boom and B. De Schutter, "Modeling and control of railway networks," Proceedings of the 2004 American Control Conference, Boston, Massachusetts, pp. 5728-5733, June-July 2004.
In this paper we consider the modeling and control of railway networks. The main aim of the control is to recover from delays in an optimal way by breaking connections and changing the departure of trains (at a cost). To model the controlled railway system we will use a switching max-plus-linear system description. We define the optimal control design problem for the railway network, and we show that solving this problem leads to an integer optimization problem. By solving an easier low-dimensional real-valued optimization problem we obtain good initial values for the integer optimization problem.