A. Bemporad, W.P.M.H. Heemels, and B. De Schutter, "On hybrid systems and closed-loop MPC systems," IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control, vol. 47, no. 5, pp. 863-869, May 2002.
The following five classes of hybrid systems were recently proven to be equivalent: linear complementarity, extended linear complementarity, mixed logical dynamical, piecewise affine, and max-min-plus-scaling systems. Some of the equivalences were obtained under additional assumptions, such as boundedness of certain system variables. In this paper, for linear or hybrid plants in closed-loop with a model predictive control (MPC) controller based on a linear model, fulfilling linear constraints on input and state variables, and utilizing a quadratic cost criterion, we provide a simple and direct proof that the closed-loop system is a subclass of any of the former five classes of hybrid systems. This result is of extreme importance as it opens up the use of tools developed for the mentioned hybrid model classes, such as (robust) stability and safety analysis tools, to study closed-loop properties of MPC.